Metrics, Measurements, Problem Solving


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8XoDCewJ-z0
Online textbook
http://cnx.org/contents/85abf193-2bd2-4908-8563-90b8a7ac8df6@9.58:1/Preface
Scientific Notation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwmJ5nMmigQ
Significant Figures
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6oj4y0d44nQ
online textbook
http://cnx.org/contents/85abf193-2bd2-4908-8563-90b8a7ac8df6@9.58:1/Preface
Density
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7tVebi3TSsg
Dimensional Analysis--Goal Post Method
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7N0lRJLwpPI
Sig figs
http://www.sciencegeek.net/APchemistry/APtaters/sigfigs.htm
Dimensional Analysis
http://www.alysion.org/dimensional/fun.htm
Sig Fig Practice
http://www.sciencegeek.net/APchemistry/APtaters/sigfigs.htm

Nuclear Structure and Quantities


Thompson's Cathode Ray
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IdTxGJjA4Jw
Rutherford's Experiment
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pZj0u_XMbc
Comparative Atom size vs Nucleus
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tfy0sIVfVOY
Democritus through Schroedinger
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=njGz69B_pUg
Atomic Structure
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JUYOg72xrCM
Atomic Numbers and Isotopes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u_Z32slAg68
Atomic Mass
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mFE-BW5hbVU
Molar Mass
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BTRm8PwcZ3U
Moles, Molecules, Atoms Conversions
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9DL4-m8IMr8
Atomic Structure worksheet
https://uen.instructure.com/courses/404700/files/72650860/download?wrap=1
and key
https://uen.instructure.com/courses/404700/files/72650868/download?wrap=1
Mole Calculation Practice Worksheet
http://misterguch.brinkster.net/PRA010.pdf

Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table


Wave Particle Duality
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q_h4IoPJXZw
Photo Electric Effect (Java may be required)
http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/quantumzone/photoelectric.html
Online textbook-Quantum Model
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/atoms/atpt-4.html
Video:Atoms absorb and emit light (8:07)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kJBcXFsFa7Y
The Bohr Atom http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/atoms/atpt-3.html (Links to an external site.)
Video: Solving light energy, wavelength, and frequency problems (5:59):http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I58ByiqnXcY (Links to an external site.)
Online Textbook: Light, Particles, and Waves http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/atoms/atpt-2.html (Links to an external site.)
Video: Orbitals (13:38)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yBrp8uvNAhI (Links to an external site.)
Video: Using Periodic Table to write Electron Configurations (10:05):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RJlEH5Jz80w (Links to an external site.)
Online Textbook: Atomic Electron Configurations http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/atoms/atpt-5.html (Links to an external site.)
Video: Groups of the Periodic Table (11:51) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LDHg7Vgzses (Links to an external site.)
Electron Structure practice
http://preparatorychemistry.com/Bishop_comp_electron_config_Flash1.htm

Describing Compounds


Video: Types of bonding (13:22) https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/periodic-table-trends-bonding/v/ionic--covalent--and-metallic-bonds (Links to an external site.)

Online Textbook: Introduction to Chemical Bonding: http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chembond/cb01.html (Links to an external site.)

Online Textbook: Models of Chemical Bonding: http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chembond/cb02.html (Links to an external site.)
Video: Naming ionic compounds (6:52)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TQKIbJIqLeA
Video: Naming covalent compounds (2:26)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VokWJy_jpAc (Links to an external site.)
Video: Writing ionic formulas (9:17)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YZKNI907dmE
Video: Molecular and Empirical Formulas (7:58)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHR9saDmeYk (Links to an external site.)
Video: Example finding empirical formula (6:41)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-reactions-stoichiometry/v/another-mass-composition-problem (Links to an external site.)
Online Textbook: Chemical Formulas & Their Arithmetic: http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/intro/int-3.html (Links to an external site.)
Use your periodic table and polyatomic ions sheet and Practice Naming
http://chemsite.lsrhs.net/FlashMedia/html/compoundsAll.html

Properties of Covalent Bonds


Video - Examples on how draw Lewis structures (8:38).
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PtMifU1py5I (Links to an external site.)
Video: Drawing and understanding Resonance structures (4:08)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MWDL5WCZBzE (Links to an external site.)
Online Textbook: covers octets, Lewis structures, and resonance:
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chembond/cb03.html (Links to an external site.)
Video: Using VSEPR theory to predict 3d shape of molecules (5:31)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sceYMpBrNNo
Online Textbook: Molecular Geometry http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chembond/cb05.html (Links to an external site.)
Video: Hybridization (10:51)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPDptc0wUYI (Links to an external site.)
Video: Hybridization, sigma and pi bonds (6:15)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vyT5YF4UEy0 (Links to an external site.)
Online Textbook: Hybridization http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chembond/cb06.html (Links to an external site.)
Online Textbook: Multiple bonds http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chembond/cb07.html (Links to an external site.)
Video: Polarity (5:12)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=un93VJxUfPA (Links to an external site.)
Video: IMF (5:40)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=90q7xl3ndJ8 (Links to an external site.)
Video: Types of Intermolecular Forces (Van der Waals, Dipole-dipole, and H-bonding and properties due to IMF) (11:39)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matter/v/van-der-waals-forces (Links to an external site.)
Online Textbook: Polar covalence: http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chembond/cb04.html (Links to an external site.)
Online Textbook: Interactions between molecular units: http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/states/interact.html (Links to an external site.)
Online Textbook: H-bonding & water: http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/states/water.html (Links to an external site.)
The following sites may help give you more practice:
More practice with vsepr and Lewis Dot Structure
http://www.chem.purdue.edu/vsepr/practice.html
IMF practice
http://www.chem.umass.edu/genchem/chem112/MCQ_Intermolecular_Forces.htm

Balancing Equations


Read Chapter 5 (Links to an external site.) of the “Introductory Chemistry Online” Textbook http://askthenerd.com/chemistryonline/CH5/Ch5.html (Links to an external site.)
Balancing Chemical Equations Brightstorm Chemistry (6:57)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YAutl-G7g4A
Types of Reactions Brightstorm Chemistry (6:02)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ym1ln3LG46k
Double Replacement Reactions Brightstorm Chemistry (5:32)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eck_s_J6nKo
Chemical Equations and Calculations: Basic chemical arithmetic and Stoichiometry (Links to an external site.)
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/intro/int-4.html (Links to an external site.)

Practice all the examples in the on-line reading. Repeated practice is the best way to understand balancing equations and Stoichiometry. Below are some websites to practice balancing equations: (recommended – not required)
Jefferson Lab “It’s Elemental – Balancing Act (Links to an external site.)http://education.jlab.org/elementbalancing/ (Links to an external site.)
Practice Balancing Equations (Links to an external site.) http://www.files.chem.vt.edu/RVGS/ACT/notes/scripts/bal_eq1.html (Links to an external site.)
Balancing Chemical Reactions (Links to an external site.) Practice Problems http://science.widener.edu/svb/tutorial/rxnbalancingcsn7.html (Links to an external site.)
Khan Academy: Balancing Chemical Equations (Links to an external site.)(14:28) https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-reactions-stoichiometry/v/balancing-chemical-equation (Links to an external site.)
Chemistry Solutions: Balancing Chemical Equations
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UGf60kq_ZD
Khan Academy https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-reactions-stoichiometry/v/balancing-chemical-equations (Links to an external site.)
School Tube: Types of Chemical Reactions (Links to an external site.) (3:10) http://www.schooltube.com/video/0bbcb832f2344f27b996/Type%20of%20Chemical%20Reactions (Links to an external site.)
School Tube: Determine single or double replacement reaction (Links to an external site.) http://www.schooltube.com/video/c312350503738d9f9399/ (Links to an external site.)
Practice
http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/taters/EquationBalancing.htm
Reaction Identification practice
http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/taters/EquationIdentification.htm


Stoichiometry


Read the information on the following Three (3) websites
1) Read Chapter Four on the Mole and Measurements in Chemistry
http://askthenerd.com/COL/images/Ch4.html (Links to an external site.)
2) Science Geek Stoichiometry
http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/Presentations/Stoichiometry/ (Links to an external site.)
3) Bridging the Stoichiometry Gap : method for converting between moles, formula mass and grams
http://www2.ucdsb.on.ca/tiss/stretton/chem1/stoicgap.html (Links to an external site.)
Mole and Molar Mass Reading with examples
http://www.chem.memphis.edu/bridson/FundChem/T11a1100.htm (Links to an external site.)
Mole and Measurement
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introductory_Chemistry_Online/Mole_and_Measurement (Links to an external site.)
Moles


http://www.wyzant.com/help/science/chemistry/moles (Links to an external site.)
Chemical Equations and Calculations: Basic Chemical Arithmetic & Stoichiometry
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/intro/int-4.html (Links to an external site.)
Percent Yield by Brightstorm 5:16 minutes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQN9lH9WAVQ (Links to an external site.)
Balancing Chemical Equations: Khan Academy 14.27 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=RnGu3xO2h74 (Links to an external site.)
Stoichiometry : Khan Academy 9:55 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=SjQG3rKSZUQ (Links to an external site.)
Stoichiometry Limiting Reagants : Khan Academy 15.03 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=rESzyhPOJ7I (Links to an external site.)
Stoichiometry Sample Problem 1: Khan Academy 13.34 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=jFv6k2OV7IU (Links to an external site.)
Stoichiometry Sample Problem 2: Khan Academy 18.52 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=eQf_EAYGo-k (Links to an external site.)
Limiting Reactants Example Problem 1: Khan Academy 19:19 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=YNriRslOk9A (Links to an external site.)
Stoichiometry: Grams to Liters example problem: 4:58 http://socratic.org/chemistry/stoichiometry/equation-stoichiometry (Links to an external site.)
Stoichiometry Mole Ratio Problems : 21:01 (excellent step by step examples on Stoichiometry calculations) http://socratic.org/chemistry/stoichiometry/mole-ratios (Links to an external site.)
Recommended practice problems
Moles and Stoichiometry
http://academic.evergreen.edu/curricular/matterandmotion/chem_phys%5Cpractice_problems.htm (Links to an external site.)
Stoichiometry Online Help Practice Problems
http://www.scienceiscool.org/stoichiometry/problems.html (Links to an external site.)
Chemistry Practice Problems with Answers
http://chemistrysky.com/Practice%20Problems.html (Links to an external site.)
Practice Problems w/answers
http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~coursedev/Online%20tutorials/Plink/limreag/probsetlr.htm

States of Matter and Behavior of Gases



Required Reading: Complete the reading on the following four (4) websites
1) Observable Properties of Gas
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/gas/gas_1.html (Links to an external site.)
2) The Basic Gas Laws : Properties of Gas
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/gas/gas_2.html (Links to an external site.)
3) Moles, Mixtures & Densities : Properties of Gas
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/gas/gas_3.html (Links to an external site.)
4) Molecules in Motion: Introduction to Kinetic – Molecular Theory
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/gas/gas_4.html (Links to an external site.)
Recommended Reading;
The Gaseous State : http://askthenerd.com/chemistryonline/CH9/Ch9.html (Links to an external site.)
Recommended Videos
Ideal Gas Laws PV =nRT (9:22)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/ideal-gas-laws/v/partial-pressure (Links to an external site.)
Ideal Gas Equations Example 1 (10:08)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/ideal-gas-laws/v/ideal-gas-equation-example-1 (Links to an external site.)
Ideal Gas Equations Example 2 (13:01)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/ideal-gas-laws/v/ideal-gas-equation-example-2 (Links to an external site.)
Ideal Gas Equations Example 3 (5:46)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/ideal-gas-laws/v/ideal-gas-equation-example-3 (Links to an external site.)
Ideal Gas Equations Example 4 (5:03)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/ideal-gas-laws/v/ideal-gas-example-4 (Links to an external site.)
Khan Academy : Partial Pressure (15:09)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/ideal-gas-laws/v/partial-pressure (Links to an external site.)



Energy of Phase Changes and Calorimetry




  1. Changes of State : Vapor Pressure, Boiling and Phase Maps: http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/states/changes.html (Links to an external site.)
  2. Thermochemistry Part 4: Measuring ΔH in the Laboratory: http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/energetics/CE-4.html#SEC4 (Links to an external site.)
  3. Basic Thermochemistry Powerpoint: http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/Powerpoint2/BasicThermochemistry.ppsx (Links to an external site.)
  4. Chemical Energy and Thermodynamics 3: Molecules as Energy Carriers and Converters: http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/energetics/CE-3.html (Links to an external site.)
  5. Thermochemical Calculations Powerpoint: http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/Powerpoint2/ThermochemicalCalcs.ppsx (Links to an external site.)


Required Videos:

1) Brightstorm Chemistry : Enthalpy- Changes in energy 3:54 minutes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ksN-t2mmpvM&list=PLC94F0A36C03A6FEC (Links to an external site.

2) Brightstorm: Heat of Fusion - Heat of Vaporization (7:18)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qlizkLCSXmQ&list=PLC94F0A36C03A6FEC (Links to an external site.


Recommended Videos

Brightstorm: Specific Heat 6:42 minutes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pUKqUnJA33M&list=PLC94F0A36C03A6FEC (Links to an external site.

Introduction to Thermochemistry and Enthalpy 16:36 minutes

http://socratic.org/chemistry/thermochemistry/energy-change-in-reactions (Links to an external site.)

Khan Academy: Specific Heat, Heat of Fusion and Vaporization (14:49)

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matter/v/specific-heat--heat-of-fusion-and-vaporization (Links to an external site.)

Khan Academy : Chilling Water Problems (11:23)

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matter/v/chilling-water-problem (Links to an external site.)

Khan Academy: Phase Diagrams (12:36)

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matter/v/phase-diagrams (Links to an external site.)

Change of State Example (7:38)

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matter/v/change-of-state-example (Links to an external site.)

Labeling a Phase Change Diagram (6:11)

http://www.sophia.org/tutorials/labeling-a-phase-change-diagram (Links to an external site.)

Thermochemical Equations Practice Problems 12:24 (excellent step by step problem solving with Stoichiometry) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8m_FCe5aCqY (Links to an external site.)

Enthalpy : Khan Academy : 15.06 minuteshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=fucyI7Ouj2c (Links to an external site.)


Complete the Phase Diagrams Practice at the “Science Geek” website: http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/taters/phasediagram.htm

Phase Diagrams #2
http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/taters/phasediagrams2.htm (Links to an external site.)


Enthalpy Changes


Read the information from the following websites:
1) Hess's Law and Calorimetry: Chemical Energetics and Thermodynamics Thermochemistry and Calorimetry http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/energetics/CE-4.html (Links to an external site.)
2) Bond Energy: Applications of Enthalpy:
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/energetics/CE-5.html (Links to an external site.)
Required Videos
1) Brightstorm Chemistry Hess's Law (5:46)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7aTBxA7sL8 (Links to an external site.
2) Brightstorm Heat of Formation (8:29)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQuy2mgbV9o (Links to an external site.
Recommended Readings:
1) Power Points on Kinetics & Thermodynamics : Unit 7
http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/Powerpoints2.shtml (Links to an external site.)
Recommended Videos:
1) Enthalpy : Khan Academy : 15.06 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=fucyI7Ouj2c (Links to an external site.
2) Heat of Formation: Khan Academyhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=PK_JXzYcme0 (Links to an external site.
3) Hess’s Law and Reaction Enthalpy Change : 15.40 minutes https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/v/hess-s-law-and-reaction-enthalpy-change (Links to an external site.)
4) Hess’s Law Example : Khan Academy 12:07 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=8bCL8TQZFKo (Links to an external site.
5) Enthalpy : Khan Academy 15:06
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fucyI7Ouj2c (Links to an external site.

Entropy and Sponteinity of Reactions



1) Chemical Energy: An Introduction to Thermodynamics 2: First Law of Thermodynamics
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/energetics/CE-2.html (Links to an external site.)
2) What is Entropy? http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/thermeq/TE2.html (Links to an external site.)
3) The Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Availability of Energy http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/thermeq/TE3.html (Links to an external site.)
4) The Gibbs Function: Free Energy http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/thermeq/TE4.html (Links to an external site.)
5) Free Energy and Equilibrium: The Road is Downhill http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/thermeq/TE5.html (Links to an external site.)
6) Applications of Entropy and Free Energy
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/thermeq/TE6.html (Links to an external site.)
Required Video: Watch the following two (2) videos.
1) Brightstorm: Spontaneous Processes 5:14 minutes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M6ZXrs4Z4KE (Links to an external site.
2) Brightstorm: Gibbs Free Energy 9:46 minutes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lGa0_zn_4Qc (Links to an external site.
Recommended Videos
First Law of Thermodynamics/ Internal Energy: Khan Academy: 17:39 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Xb05CaG7TsQ (Links to an external site.
Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity : Khan Academy 17:39
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ViAmQivKif0 (Links to an external site.)
Gibbs Free Energy Example
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=sG1ZAdYi13A (Links to an external site.
Demonstration of Endothermic (NH4NO3) & Exothermic Reaction (CH3OH) : 5:45 minutes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cBy4Q6A8Hfw (Links to an external site.)
online questions on entropy and spontaneity at the following website: http://www.sciencegeek.net/APchemistry/APtaters/chap16rev.htm

Kinetics


Collision Theory


Reaction Coordinate or Potential Energy Diagrams



Factors of Rate of Reaction

Video



Rate Law

Reading


Video


Determining Reaction Rates

  • Problems:

  1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t8S1hKaTY_w (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site
  2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hy5YaCq6BB0 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site
  3. http://apchem09.wikispaces.com/Kinetics#anchor9 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
  4. http://www.austincc.edu/dlyon/gen_chem_1_summer04/Gen%20Chem%20II%20Exam%202%20practice%20problems%20f08.pdf (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Rates Laws and Reaction Rates


Objectives

8.4
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  • Given a rate law, give the order with respect to each reactant and the overall order of a reaction
  • Describe the effect changing the concentration of a reactant would have on the overall rate of the reaction

8.5
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  • Define multi-step reaction and reaction mechanism.
  • Identify catalysts and intermediates in reaction mechanisms
  • Identify the rate-determining step in a reaction
  • Given a mechanism, indicate how concentrations of reactants will affect the overall rate of the reaction.
  • State the relationship between the rate-determining step and mechanism of a reaction
  • Identify whether a mechanism is supported by a rate law

8.6
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  • Given initial rate data and concentrations of reactants, find the rate law for a reaction.
  • Given graphical data, find the rate law for a reaction.
  • Calculate the numerical value and units of the rate constant, k.


Additional Resources


Video:


Equilibrium


Objectives:

9.1
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  • Describe how a reversible reaction reaches equilibrium
  • Using a graph, determine when a reaction reaches equilibrium

9.4
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  • Write equilibrium constant expressions.
  • Explain what the value of k means in terms of relative concentrations of reactants and products.

9.5
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  • Describe the effect of concentration on an equilibrium system.
  • Describe the effect of temperature as a stress on an equilibrium system.
  • Predict the effect a change in volume or pressure would have on a gaseous equilibrium
  • Determine what factors will affect the value of the equilibrium constant, k
  • Predict the effect of adding a catalyst on a system in equilibrium


Additional Resources

Chemical Equilibrium


Le Chatelier’s Principle





Reaction Quotient and Equilibrium Constant






Acids and bases

Objectives
7.1
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  • Discuss the differences between electrolytes and non-electrolytes and give examples of each.
  • Determine from the formula whether a compound is an electrolyte or a non-electrolyte.
7.3
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  • Define concentration, and list the common units used to express the concentration of solutions.
  • Define and calculate molarity, mass percent, ppm, mole fraction, and molality.
  • Describe the procedure for preparing a specific amount of solution with a specific molarity, from solid solute and from a concentrated stock solution.
  • Calculate the concentration of a solution that has been diluted
7.4
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  • Explain what the term colligative means and list colligative properties.
  • Indicate what happens to the boiling point, the freezing point, the vapor pressure, and osmotic pressure of a solvent when a solute is added to it.
  • Calculate boiling point elevations and freezing point depressions for both non-electrolyte and electrolyte solutions.
  • Calculate molar masses from freezing point depression data.

Additional Resources


Objectives

10.1
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  • Define and identify Brønsted -Lowry acids and bases
  • Define Lewis acids and bases
  • Identify the conjugate acids and bases in a reaction
  • Define and identify amphiproptic substances
  • Define and identify polyprotic acids
  • Define strong acids and bases and list strong acids and bases
  • Compare the relative strength of conjugate acids and bases
  • Identify common Lewis acids
  • Label a salt solution as acidic or basic

10.2
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  • Calculate [H+] [OH-], pH, and pOH given the value of any of the other values in a solution
  • Calculate the pH and pOH of a solution given [H+] or [OH-]
  • Explain and use the relationships among pH, pOH, and Kw.


Additional Resources


Videos:

Watch this video if you don't have much Acid-Base background. It also has a great explanation of acid rain.




Objectives
10.3
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  • Use the concentration of a strong acid or base to find the pH
10.4
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  • Write the net-ionic hydrolysis reactions for acids and bases in water
  • Calculate the % ionization of a weak acid
  • Relate the strength of an acid or base to its Ka or Kb or to its percent ionization
  • Calculate the pH of Strong Acid and Base Solutions

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10.6
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    • Write the balanced equation for the reaction that occurs when an acid reacts with a base.


Objectives
10.7
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  • Calculate the concentration of unknown acid or base when given the concentration of the other and the volume needed to reach the equilibrium point in a titration.
  • Identify important areas of a titration curve for different types of titrations
  • Choose the correct indicator for an acid/base titration
10.8
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  • Calculate the pH of a weak acid or weak base solution
  • Calculate the pH of a buffer solution
  • Calculate the pH of a solution at various points throughout a titration

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Electrochemistry


Objectives
11.1
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  • Assign oxidation numbers to an element in a compound or ion.
  • Identify which element was oxidized and which was reduced in a reaction
  • Label the oxidizing agent and reducing agent in a reaction
  • List common oxidizing agents and reducing agents
  • Predict the products of redox reactions
11.2
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  • Write and balance half-reactions
  • Write and balance redox reactions
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Objectives
11.3
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  • Label the components of a battery or voltaic cell, including the anode, cathode, and salt bridge.
  • Describe the function of each component in a battery
  • Write redox reactions in battery notation
  • Calculate the standard voltage (potential) of a voltaic cell
11.4
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  • Using E°, indicate if a redox reaction is spontaneous or non-spontaneous
  • Calculate ΔG° for a reaction.
  • Calculate the equilibrium constant, K, for a redox reaction
  • Calculate the voltage of a battery at non-standard conditions using the Nernst equation
  • Predict whether the voltage of a battery will increase or decrease if some change is made to the battery
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Nuclear Chemistry



Objectives
24.1
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  • Explain how radioactivity involves a change in the nucleus of a radioisotope.
  • Describe mass defect, and calculate the conversion of mass to energy according to Einstein’s equation.
  • Describe the band of stability, the odd-even effect, and magic numbers in terms of their influence on the stability of nuclei.
  • Describe and write equations for the primary types of radioactive decay.
24.2
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  • Define half-life as it relates to radioactive nuclides and solve half-life problems.
  • Describe the general process by which radioactive dating is used to determine the age of various objects.
  • Explain the mechanism of a decay series.
  • Define and write equations for artificial transmutation processes.
24.3
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  • Define fission and explain why energy is released during the fission process.
  • Describe a nuclear chain reaction and how it is applied in both a fission bomb and in a nuclear power plant.
  • Define fusion and explain the difficulty in using fusion as a controlled energy source.
  • Explain how ionizing radiation is measured and how it is detected.
  • Describe some uses of radiation in medicine and agriculture
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Organic Chemistry

Objectives
25.1
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  • Describe the bonding characteristics of carbon that lead to such a large number of organic compounds.
  • Describe, name, and draw structures for straight-chain and branched alkanes.
  • Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.
  • Describe alkenes and alkynes.
  • Describe the characteristics of structural isomers, geometric isomers, and optical isomers.
25.3
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  • Define a functional group and explain the importance of functional groups to organic chemistry.
  • Be able to identify the following functional groups in an organic molecule: alkyl halide, alcohol, ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, and amine.
  • Know how to name simple molecules containing one of the basic functional groups listed above.
  • Relate the properties of organic compounds to their structures and the functional groups that they contain, and describe the uses of some of these compounds.
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